Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)
A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a base pair substitution at a specific locus within a DNA sequence. SNPs are the simplest and most common type of genetic variation and are used to quickly and easily identify heritable differences among individual plants, animals, or humans within a population. Importantly, researchers are building an ever-increasing library of SNPs that are linked to agriculturally and medically important phenotypes including susceptibility to disease or environmental stress as well as response to medication or treatment regimens.
Applications for SNP Genotyping
Plant and Animal Genetics
Following Mendel’s rule of inheritance, SNPs are evolutionarily conserved and therefore, are useful in plant and animal marker-assisted breeding programs. Using SNP genotyping, selective breeding is accelerated by allowing traits to be identified and selected prior to growing the organism to maturity – saving time and money. Large-scale quality control testing also benefits from SNP genotyping, using these simple markers as a “genetic fingerprint” to trace samples as well as estimate the purity of a population.
SNPs are used in large scale epidemiological studies to identify specific variations in genes that influence susceptibility to disease and response to medication or treatment. Once identified, SNPs may be used to diagnose individuals carrying the gene of interest, which provides critical information necessary to personalize medical care. Human identity testing also may be achieved using the “genetic fingerprint” provided by SNP genotyping.
Why is Array Tape™ a good choice for SNP genotyping?
Array Tape™ provides a cost-effective solution for studies designed to identify a moderate number of SNPs in larger population sizes.
Typical Processmicroplate-based workstations
Douglas Scientific Processusing Nexar®, Soellex® and Araya®
Step 1: Dispense 8 microliters a single 384- microplate at a time
Step 2: Seal the microplate
Step 3: Stack the microplates
Step 1: Dispense 1 µL, seals the equivalent of 200 plates in a continuous strip of tape and winds the Array Tape™ on a reel
|Process||Run microplates through PCR 16 or 32 at a time||Entire reel of Array Tape™ is loaded into the Soellex® water bath with shorter cycle time|
|Dry||Dry Microplate||Dry reel of Array Tape™|
|Scan||Scan Microplate (~ 1.5 – 2.5 minutes)||Scan entire reel ~ 20-30 seconds per microplate equivalent|
|Plates per day:||150 microplates (384 wells)||400|
|Data points per day:||57,600||153,600|
|Lab processing time:||10 hours||8 hours|
Streamline Workflow: Inline liquid handling (Nexar®) and fluorescence scanning (Araya®) continuously process reaction wells without the need for robotic or manual handling of microtiter plates.
Batch Thermocycling: Up to three reels of Array Tape™, 600 microplate equivalents, may be processed simultaneously in our Soellex® water bath.
Modular Nexar® and Araya® Instruments: Customized liquid handling and scanning processes may be achieved for multiple SNP assay technologies.
Scalability: As new modules and attachments are developed, the Platform can be expanded or upgraded to support new applications, increase throughput, reduce cost, etc. The modular design will extend the useful life of the platform by years.
Miniaturized Reaction Volumes: Reduce reagent and sample consumption up to 80-90% in miniaturized reaction wells – 800 nL or less in Array Tape™ vs. 5 µL or more in microplates.
Less Labor: Highly automated, easy to use design eliminates labor associated with manually moving microplates.
Review our collection of Published Papers.